Egypt's nationally determined contributions to Paris agreement: review and recommendations

Document Type : Original Article


Alexandria higher Institute of Engineering & Technology (AIET)


During Paris Agreement, a historic climate landmark signed in Paris in 2015, leaders of about 200 countries committed to limiting global warming well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels, and pursuing efforts to limit it to 1.5 °C by 2100. Each Country defined its commitments as Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs). Egypt, with only 0.6% contribution to global emissions, is badly susceptible to climate change. Egypt submitted its NDCs in 2017 to be activated in 2020. Egypt’s NDCs are too general and does not provide quantified targets nor plans for emission reductions. Moreover, Egypt’s NDCs are conditional on receiving international funding of 73 Billion Dollars. This paper reviews Egypt’s NDC to assess its true level of importance and to display Egypt’s long-standing commitment to climate change efforts. Actions include reshaping the energy mix for electricity generation from (92% oil & gas and 8% hydroelectric & renewables) to (60% natural gas with combined cycle, 35% renewables & hydro and 5% nuclear energy). In transport sector, fuel switching from oil to gas and promotion of electric vehicles can lead to at least 10% emission reduction in transport sector. Energy efficiency in industry, achieved by promoting high efficient motors, variable speed drives, waste heat recovery and replacing fluorinated refrigerants, can lead to a similar reduction in industry sector. Replacing inefficient lighting with LEDs, together with the use of energy efficient appliances, air conditioners and installing solar panels can lead to similar reduction in the building sector. These actions can be done with local resources besides firmly applying environmental regulations. It shows that a target of reducing CO2 emissions by 20% from current emissions of 250 MtCO2 emissions by 2030 is possible. International funding is required for adaptation to the results of climate changes. The required technical and financial support for such adaptation needs extensive studies.